January 4, 2013

Sobre los salarios de Obama y Ollanta, y algunos otros

Aunque mi primera reacción fue escandalizarme al ver el presupuesto de la campaña electoral en la que finalmente Ollanta Humala fue electo, me interesó ver la proporción con el gasto en la campaña de Obama; dada la casualidad de tener justo ambas elecciones durante el 2011. Al respecto, y cito a Ángel Hugo Pilares de El Comercio:
"Ser presidente de la nación que se autodenomina la más poderosa del mundo no es barato. Los fondos de campaña de Barack Obama bordean los US$ 632 millones y en la cuenta de Mitt Romney han entrado poco más de US$ 389 millones."
mientras que para la presidencia del Perú, según una infografía del diario La República basada en datos de la ONPE, muestran que el presupuesto aproximado para ser presidente de la república (del Perú) es de USD 10 millones (según la ONPE, los aportes recibidos por el partido de Humala superan los 10 millones de Nuevos Soles). Obviamente, cuanta inversión haya que hacer para hacerse de la presidencia de Estados Unidos, es importante para gigantes como JP Morgan, Google, Microsoft, Bank of America, Goldman Sachs y universidades como la de California y Harvard; todos presentes como mayores auspiciadores de las campañas de Romney u Obama; pero para financiar a Humala hay que crear cuentas y aportantes fantasma.


Foto tomada de: Diario La Primera (Perú)
Link: http://www.diariolaprimeraperu.com/online/archivo/2012/04/15

Yendo un poco a nuestro vecindario, me pregunto si el sueldo de Humala, más que "humilde" frente al de Obama, está en proporción con los de la región. Para ello, he comparado el PBI per cápita con el sueldo presidencial; de modo que vemos a un ciudadano promedio al costado del presidente, en términos salariales. En Perú, la proporción es de 12 a 1 (léase, el sueldo presidencial es doce veces lo que un individuo promedio recibe); mientras que en Chile (13,5) y Paraguay (11,7) la proporción es similar, me llamó la atención la reducida proporción en Argentina (4,8) y la imponente en Brasil (25,5) y México (31,9).

Siguiendo la idea de que hay que pagarle bien a los funcionarios públicos (y con más razón a la cabeza de gobierno), ¿debería de haber un límite (ético) en la proporción de los sueldos de los funcionarios públicos y de una persona promedio? Siendo uno de los factores distintivos de latino américa la desigualdad y con los casos tan recurrentes de corrupción no puedo sino encontrar frustración y pensar que los ministros y congresistas no merecen sueldos tan elevados (aunque, por supuesto, hay excepciones; me queda la sensación que la mayoría tiene sus casos escondidos). Por otro lado, en caso contrario ¿cómo evitar la corrupción?

La desigualdad, incluso en la proporción del sueldo presidencial en latino américa, es llamativa. Nótese que un país como Namibia, con un PBI per cápita de USD 5439, no muy diferente al peruano, le paga casi el doble a su presidente. ¡Debe de haber mucha corrupción en ese país! Bueno, ehm... aparentemente no. Según Transparencia Internacional, en su ranking de percepción de corrupción del 2012, Perú ocupa el puesto 83, Colombia el 94, Paraguay el 150 y Argentina el 102. Usando la lógica de "combatir la corrupción de los funcionarios públicos con sueldos altos", los salarios deberían ser inversamente proporcionales a la percepción de corrupción de estos países, pero los salarios básicos y las proporciones respecto del ingreso promedio no lo confirman. Para rematar, Namibia tiene una percepción de corrupción que la ubica en el puesto 58, es decir, no sólo sienten que hay menos corrupción sino que inclusive le pagan más al presidente. En el sgte. gráfico tenemos los sueldos de algunos países de la región y un par adicionales como referencia.


(Unidades en USD 2011; basado en datos de las Naciones Unidas)
Fuente: Wikipedia (principalmente)
Elaboración: propia


Suponiendo que siempre se cumple el caso en que los sueldos responden a una responsabilidad mayor y capacidad superior, me pregunto si incrementando el sueldo del presidente de Argentina se podría tener a alguien más profesional que Cristina, pero quedará para un futuro debate.


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